ἔθνος

ἔθνος
ἔθνος, ους, τό (Hom.+).
a body of persons united by kinship, culture, and common traditions, nation, people, τὸ ἔθνος τῆς Σαμαρείας the Samaritan people Ac 8:9 (cp. Jos., Ant. 18, 85). τῶν Ἰουδαίων 10:22 (Polyb. in Jos., Ant. 12, 135; Agatharchides: 86 Fgm. 20b Jac. [in Jos., Ant. 12, 6]; Diod S 34+35 Fgm. 1, 2 τὸ τῶν Ἰουδαίων ἔθνος; Philo, Decal. 96 al.; Just., D. 56, 10 ὑμῶν al.) ἐ. the (specific) people, contextually the people of Israel (cp. Orig., C. Cels. 5, 15, 24; Did., Gen. 209, 14) J 11:48, 50ff; 18:35. δώδεκα ἔ. Hs 9, 17, 2.—B 13:2 (Gen 25:23); ἔθνη ἑπτὰ ἐν γῇ Χανάαν seven nations in Canaan Ac 13:19 (Dt 7:1). The people in contrast to heads of state 9:15. ἔθνος ἐπὶ ἔθνος one nation against another Mt 24:7; Mk 13:8; Lk 21:10 (cp. 2 Ch 15:6); πάντα τὰ ἔ. (Ar. 12, 1; Ath. 14, 2; cp. Appian, Bell. Civ. 2, 106 §440 ἐν ἔθνεσιν ἅπασι; Jos., Ant. 11, 215 ἅπαντα τὰ ἔ.) Mt 24:14; 28:19 (SKio, BT 41, ’90, 230–38, prefers 2 below); Mk 11:17 (Is 56:7); 13:10. More specif. πάντα τὰ ἔ. τοῦ κόσμου Lk 12:30; cp. ἅπαντα τὰ ἔ. 1 Cl 59:4; ἐν πᾶσιν τοῖς ἔ. 2 Cl 13:2. πᾶν ἔθνος ἀνθρώπων every nation of humankind Ac 17:26. ἄρχοντες ἐθνῶν Mt 20:25; also οἱ δοκοῦντες ἄρχειν τῶν ἐ. Mk 10:42; οἱ βασιλεῖς τῶν ἐ. Lk 22:25 (cp. Ath. 34, 2 ἡγεμόνας τῶν ἐ.).—In Mt 21:43 ἔ. (not gentiles) in contrast to the leaders described vv. 23; 45.
(τὰ) ἔθνη people groups foreign to a specific people group (corresp. to Heb. גּוֹיִם in LXX; a nationalistic expression, also usu. in Gk. for foreigners: Aristot., Pol. 1324b, 10 [opp. Ἕλληνες]; Ael. Aristid. 45, p. 3 D.; Cass. Dio 36, 41; Ps.-Callisth. 2, 7, 4 [opp. ἡ Ἑλλάς]; IG II/1, 445 Fgm. ab, 8; Fgm. c, 5; 448, 15 and 17 [c. 150 B.C.]; SIG 760; PStras 22, 19; PFay 20, 11; this is an expression favored by Appian in Rome for foreign peoples in contrast to the Italians: Bell. Civ. 2, 26 §99; 2, 28 §107; 3, 35 §140; 4, 57 §246 and oft.; s. Nägeli 46; B-D-F §254, 3) in our lit.
those who do not belong to groups professing faith in the God of Israel, the nations, gentiles, unbelievers (in effect=‘polytheists’) w. ἡγεμόνες κ. βασιλεῖς Mt 10:18. Named w. Israelites (Jos., Ant. 13, 196; cp. SibOr 3, 663; Just., A I, 53, 3ff and D. 123, 2 al.) Ac 14:5; 21:21; 26:17; Ro 3:29; 9:24; 15:10 (Dt 32:43); ISm 1:2. They, too, are to share in salvation (Did., Gen. 182, 19); cp. Ac 11:1, 18; 14:27; 15:3, 7; cp. 2 Cl 13:3 (Just., D. 26, 1 al.) (MKiddle, The Admission of the Gentiles in Lk and Ac: JTS 36, ’35, 160–73; JJeremias, Jesu Verheissung für die Völker ’56 [lit.], Eng. tr. Jesus’ Promise to the Nations ’58). But s. Mt 10:5f (MHooker, ET 82, ’71, 361–65). Their sacrificial rites 1 Cor 10:20 v.l. Paul as διδάσκαλος ἐθνῶν 1 Ti 2:7; 2 Ti 1:11 v.l. Contrasted w. Christians Hs 1:10. Offended by Christian behavior ITr 8:2.
non-Israelite Christians, gentiles of Christian congregations composed of more than one nationality and not limited to people of Israel (οἱ ἀπὸ τῶν ἐθνῶν πιστεύοντες Orig., C. Cels. 2, 1, 9; 8, 29, 24): πᾶσαι αἱ ἐκκλησίαι τῶν ἐθνῶν Ro 16:4, and their members: μετὰ τῶν ἐθνῶν συνήσθιεν it was his custom to eat w. gentile (non-Israelite) Christians Gal 2:12; cp. vs. 14. ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν τῶν ἐθνῶν for you gentile Christians Eph 3:1. Somet. the word connotes Israelite allegations of religious and moral inferiority of gentiles Mt 6:32 (s. Goodsp., Probs., 26f); Lk 12:30; Hm 4, 1, 9; ἔ. καὶ ἁμαρτωλοί Hs 4:4 al. ἄνομα ἔ. lawless gentiles (=polytheists) MPol 9:2. Contrasted w. the δίκαιοι (w. ἀποστάται) Hv 1, 4, 2; cp. 2, 2, 5.—RFeldmeier/UHeckel, edd., Die Heiden ’94 (essays by a number of scholars); JLaGrand, Proliferation of the ‘Gentile’ in the NRSV: BR 41, ’96, 77–87 (against use of ‘Gentiles’ as a rendering of ἔθνη).—B. 1315; 1489. M-M. TW. Sv.

Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία. 2015.

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